What are space materials ?

"Space materials" typically refer to materials that are designed and used for applications in outer space. These materials need to withstand the extreme conditions of space, including vacuum, microgravity, temperature variations, radiation, and the potential for impacts from micrometeoroids and other space debris.

The choice of materials for space applications is crucial to ensure the success and durability of spacecraft and their components. The primary properties of space materials to be considered are as follows.
• Thermal properties : Spacecraft experience significant temperature variations from extreme cold (in shadowed areas) to intense heat (in direct sunlight). Materials used must be able to handle these extreme variations in temperature without degrading its performance.
• Mechanical strength : Space materials need to withstand mechanical stresses associated with the launch as well as potential for impacts from micrometeoroids and othe debris.
• Radiation resistance : Materials must be chosen to resist effects of various forms of radiation including solar radiation, cosmic rays etc. over extended period of time.
• Weight : Light weight but strong materials are often preferred. This is essential as it varies cost of launching payloads.
• Durability : Spacecrafts or other space objects need to operate for extended period of time. Moreover maintenance and repairs are often not possible. Materials must be durable amd reliable for the entire duration of the mission.
• Electrical : The space materials must have predictable electrical properties. Some materials may generate static electricity or be affected by space environment, which can impact electronic systems where they have been used.

The common materials used for space applications are titanium, aluminium, kapton, carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP), ceramics and radiation shielding materials. The spacecrafts use numerous space materials which include Kevlar,heat resistant tape,honeycomb panel,multilayer insulation material and aerogel. Let us understand material compositions, characteristics and applications of these materials.

Space materials find applications in a variety of components and structures across different types of spacecraft and space missions. These include Spacecraft Frames, support structures, thermal blankets, heat shields, PCBs, wiring and connectors, radiation shielding, rocket nozzles, fuel tanks, telescope mirrors, lens coatings, photovoltaic solar cells, space suit components, sensor housings, micrometeoroid shields and so on.

Multilayer insulation material (MLI)

It typically consists of multiple layers of reflective foil separated by low-conductance spacers, such as polyester or Mylar. MLI reflects and minimizes heat transfer through radiation. Moreover it is light in weight and flexible.

MLI is extensively used as thermal blankets on spacecraft to control temperatures by reflecting or retaining heat. It is crucial for protecting sensitive instruments from extreme temperature fluctuations.

Kevlar

➨Material Composition: Kevlar is a synthetic fiber composed of long-chain poly-para-phenylene terephthalamide. It belongs to the aramid family of fibers.
➨Characteristics:
• High Strength: Kevlar is known for its exceptional strength, making it five times stronger than steel on an equal weight basis.
• Low Weight: Despite its strength, Kevlar is lightweight, contributing to its use in aerospace applications.
• Abrasion Resistance: It has excellent resistance to abrasion and impact.
• Heat Resistance: While Kevlar has good heat resistance, it can degrade at high temperatures.
➨Applications in Space:
• Kevlar is often used in the construction of spacecraft components, such as structural elements, cables, and tethers.
• It is employed in spacesuits for its strength and flexibility.
• Kevlar is used in spacecraft shielding for protection against micrometeoroids.

Heat resistant tape

Heat-resistant tapes can be made from various materials, including fiberglass, silicone, or other high-temperature-resistant materials.

These tapes are designed to withstand high temperatures without melting or degrading. Moreover they are flexible and provide insulation against heat transfer.

Applications :
• It is used in thermal protection systems to secure and insulate components exposed to high temperatures during re-entry.
• It may be used in the construction of spacecraft components requiring heat resistance.

Honeycomb panel

Honeycomb panels consist of a honeycomb core, typically made of materials like aluminum or Nomex, sandwiched between two face sheets.

Honeycomb structures provide excellent strength with minimal weight. They offer high stiffness and structural integrity. The honeycomb structure is effective at absorbing and dissipating energy.

Applications :
Honeycomb panels are used in spacecraft structural components, such as satellite panels and payload fairings. They are employed in the construction of lightweight and rigid structures.

Aerogel

It is a highly porous material composed of a gel in which the liquid component has been replaced with a gas. Characteristics of aerogel include low Density, thermal Insulation and transparency.

Applications in Space:
Aerogels are used in insulating spacecraft components against extreme temperatures. They may be utilized for capturing and studying cosmic dust particles due to their low density and transparency. Aerogels have potential applications in lightweight structural components and thermal shields.

10 Advantages of space materials

The 10 benefits or advantages of space materials are as follows.
1. Space materials are often selected for their high strength-to-weight ratios.
2. Space materials are designed to withstand extreme temperature variations in space.
3. These materials are chosen for their durability, allowing spacecraft to endure the harsh space environment for extended periods without degradation.
4. Space materials are engineered to resist the effects of radiation in space.
5. The mechanical strength of space materials is essential for withstanding the forces experienced during launch, as well as potential impacts from micrometeoroids and other debris in space.
6. Materials used in electrical components of spacecraft, such as printed circuit boards and wiring, are selected for their reliable electrical performance.
7. Space materials are often chosen to provide protection against micrometeoroids and space debris.
8. Thermal control materials, such as insulating blankets and coatings, contribute to efficient thermal management.
9. Materials used in optical systems, such as telescope mirrors and lenses, are selected for their optical clarity and performance.
10. Advanced space materials enable innovative design approaches, such as lightweight structures, deployable and inflatable components and 3D-printed elements.

Conclusion : In summary, space materials are integral to the design and functionality of various spacecraft components, ensuring their durability, reliability, and performance in the challenging environment of outer space. Ongoing research and advancements in materials science continue to contribute to the development of innovative space materials than listed above for future missions.


Satellite IoT network RELATED LINKS

Following are the links useful for satellite IoT (Internet of Things) domain.
Satellite tutorial main page   IoT tutorial  IoT section  IoT article  Cellular IoT  Components  Sensors  INDIAN companies  Antenna Types  Wireless technologies  IoT transceiver  SoC 

Satellite tutorial sub topics

Following links covers all the sub topics of satellite tutorial:
What is a satellite   Bands   Parts   Orbits   Services   Types   capacity allocations   network configurations   Applications   Satellite TTC   Remote sensing   VSAT basics  

IoT Wireless Technologies


RF and Wireless Terminologies