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Difference between 4G and 5G | compare 4g vs 5g difference

This page on the difference between 4G and 5G compare 4g and 5g technologies in order to derive 4g 5g difference. The page also mentions 4g vs. 5g comparison table and difference between 4g and 5g network architectures.

Introduction:
The telecommunication industry is seeing rapid growth in the last few decades. The wireless mobile communication standards are the major contributors. This growth has seen many generations from 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G. Each of these generations have various wireless technologies, data rates, modulation techniques, capacities and features compare to the other.

1G-First Generation Mobile Communication System

Data capacity: 2Kbps
Technology: Analog Wireless
Standard: AMPS
Multiplexing: FDMA
Switching type: Circuit
Service: Voice only
Main Network: PSTN
Handoff supported: Horizontal
Frequency: 800 to 900MHz

2G-Second Generation Mobile Communication System

Data capacity: 10Kbps
Technology: Digital Wireless
Standard: CDMA, TDMA, GSM
Multiplexing: TDMA, CDMA
Switching type: Circuit
Service: Voice and data
Main Network: PSTN
Handoff supported: Horizontal
Frequency: 850MHz to 1900MHz(GSM) and 825MHz to 849MHz (CDMA)

Following sections mention difference between 2.5G and 2.75G.

2.5G

Data capacity: 200Kbps
Technology: GPRS
Standard: Supported TDMA/GSM
Multiplexing: TDMA, CDMA
Switching type: Packet Switch
Service: MMS internet
Main Network: GSM TDMA
Frequency: 850MHz to 1900MHz

2.75G

Data capacity: 473Kbps
Technology:EDGE
Standard: GSM,CDMA
Multiplexing: TDMA, CDMA
Switching type: Packet Switch
Main Network: WCDMA
Frequency: 850MHz to 1900MHz

3G-Third Generation Mobile Communication System

Data capacity: 384Kbps
Technology:Broadband/IP technology, FDD and TDD
Standard: CDMA,WCDMA,UMTS,CDMA2000
Multiplexing: CDMA
Switching type: Packet and Circuit Switch
Service:High speed voice, data and video Main Network: Packet Network
Handoff: Horizontal
Frequency: 1.6 to 2.5 GHz
Refer 2G vs 3G for difference between 2G and 3G.

3.5G

Data capacity: 2Mbps
Technology:GSM/3GPP
Standard: HSDPA/HSUPA
Multiplexing: CDMA
Switching type: Packet Switch
Service Type: High Speed Voice/Data/Video Main Network: GSM, TDMA
Handoff: Horizontal
Frequency: 1.6 to 2.5 GHz

3.75G

Data capacity: 30 Mbps
Standard:1XEVDO
Multiplexing: CDMA
Switching type: Packet Switch
Service: High speed internet/ Multi-media
Handoff type: Horizontal
Frequency: 1.6 to 2.5 GHz

4G | Fourth Generation Mobile Communication System

This generation of systems are totally IP based technology with capacity of 100Mbps to 1Gbps. It is used for both indoor and outdoor applications. The main function of 4G technology is to deliver high quality, high speed, high capacity, low cost services. It is mainly used for voice, multimedia and internet over IP based traffic. The technologies driving 4G growth are LTE and WiMAX. Refer difference between 3G and 4G wireless technologies.

Following are the features of 4G Mobile WiMAX system.
• Standard: IEEE 802.16e
• Bandwidth: 5, 7, 8.75, 10 MHz
• FFT Size: 128, 512, 1024, 2048
• Subcarrier spacing: 90KHz for OFDM and 11.16KHz for OFDMA
• Data rate: About 60-70 Mbps as per mobile wimax 802.16e, 100 Mbps(Mobile subscribers) and 1GBPS (Fixed subscribers) as per WiMAX Advanced(16m).
• DL/UL multiple Access: OFDMA
• Duplexing : FDD/TDD
• Subcarrier Mapping: PUSC, FUSC, AMC
• Modulation: BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
• Channel Coding: CC, CTC
• DL MIMO 2-antenna, matrix A, 2-antenna, matrix B vertical encoding
• UL MIMO Collaborative SM for two MS with single transmit antenna
• HARQ with chase combining

Following are the features of 4G LTE system.
• Standard: 3GPP Release 9
• Bandwidth: supports 1.4MHz, 3.0MHz, 5MHz, 10MHz, 15MHz, 20MHz
• Data rate: 300 Mbps Downlink(DL) 4x4MIMO and 20MHz, 75 Mbps Uplink(UL)
• Theoretical Throughput: About 100Mbps for single chain(20MHz,100RB,64QAM), 400Mbps for 4x4 MIMO. 25% os this is used for control/signaling(OVERHEAD)
• Maximum No. of Layers: 2(category-3) and 4(category-4,5) in the downlink, 1 in the uplink
• Maximum No. of codewords: 2 in the downlink, 1 in the uplink
• Spectral Efficiency(peak,b/s/Hz): 16.3 for 4x4 MIMO in the downlink, 4.32 for 64QAM SISO case in the Uplink
• PUSCH and PUCCH transmission: Simultaneously not allowed
• Modulation schemes supported: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
• Access technique: OFDMA (DL),DFTS-OFDM (UL)
• carrier aggregation: Not supported
• Applications: Mobile broadband and VOIP

5G | Fifth Generation Mobile Communication System

There are different phases under which 5G NR (New Radio) will be deployed as per 3GPP specifications published in the december 2017. There are two main modes viz. Non-Standalone (NSA) and Standalone (SA) based on individual or combined RAT operation in coordination with LTE. In standalone mode, UE works by 5G RAT alone and LTE RAT is not needed. In non-standalone mode, LTE is used for control (C-Plane) functions e.g. call origination, call termination, location registration etc. where as 5G NR will focuse on U-Plane alone. The figure-1 depicts 5G NR architecture.

5G NR Overall architecture

Following are the features of 5G wireless technology.
• Bandwidth: Supports 1Gbps or higher
• Frequency bands: Sub-1 GHz, 1 to 6 GHz, > 6 GHz in mm bands (28 GHz, 40 GHz), Refer 5G bands>>.
• Peak data rate: Approx. 1 to 10 Gbps
• Cell Edge Data rate: 100 Mbps
• End to End delay : 1 to 5 ms
• Refer 5G basic tutorial for more information on 5G wireless technology and its network architecture.

difference between 4g and 5g network architecture

As shown in the figure LTE SAE(System Architecture Evolution) consists UE, eNodeB and EPC(evolved packet core). Various interfaces are designed between these entities which include Uu between UE and eNodeB, X2 between two eNodeB, S1 between EPC and eNodeB. eNodeB has functionalities of both RNC and NodeB as per previous UMTS architecture. The 4g network architecture contains the following network elements.
• LTE EUTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio)
• LTE Evolved Packet Core.

LTE tutorial -LTE SAE

EUTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio) consists of eNB (Base station). The LTE EPC architecture consists of MME, SGW, PGW, HSS and PCRF.

LTE Advanced E-UTRAN Architecture

LTE Advanced architecture for E-UTRAN consists of P-GW, S-GW, MME, S1-MME, eNB, HeNB, HeNB-GW, Relay Node etc. LTE Advanced protocol stack consists of user plane and control plane for AS and NAS. Refer LTE Advanced Architecture and Stack➤.

5G NR Overall architecture

The figure depicts 5g network architecture. As shown in the figure, gNB node provides NR user plane and control plane protocol terminations towards the UE (i.e. 5G terminal device such as smartphone, tablet, laptop etc.) and it is connected via the NG interface to the 5GC. The ng-eNB node providing E-UTRA (i.e. LTE) user plane and control plane protocol terminations towards the UE, and connected via the NG interface to the 5GC. Here AMF stands for Access and Mobility Management Function and UPF stands for User Plane Function. The figure depicts 5G network architecture as defined in the 3GPP TS 38.300 specification.

Let us compare 4G and 5G technologies with respect to various parameters in order to form 4g vs. 5g comparison table as mentioned below.


Specifications 4G 5G
Full form Fourth Generation Fifth Generation
Peak Data Rate 1 Gbps 10 Gbps
Data Bandwidth 2Mbps to 1Gbps 1Gbps and higher as per need
Spectral Efficiency 30 b/s/Hz 120 b/s/Hz
TTI (Transmission Time Interval) 1 ms Varying (100 µs (min.) to 4ms (max.) )
Latency 10 ms (radio) <1 ms (radio)
Mobility 350 Kmph 500 Kmph
Connection Density 1000/Km2 1000000/Km2
Frequency Band 2 to 8 GHz 3 to 300 GHz
standards Al access convergence including OFDMA,MC-CDMA,network-LMPS CDMA and BDMA
technologies unified IP, seamless integration of broadband LAN/WAN/PAN and WLAN Unified IP, seamless integration of broadband LAN/WAN/PAN/WLAN and advanced technologies based on OFDM modulation used in 5G
service Dynamic information access, wearable devices, HD streaming, global roaming Dynamic information access, werable devices, HD streaming, any demand of users
Multiple Access CDMA CDMA,BDMA
Core network All IP network Flatter IP network, 5G network interfacing(5G-NI)
Handoff Horizontal and vertical Horizontal and vertical
Initiation from year-2010 year-2015

In order to understand difference between 4g and 5g technologies, one has to compare 5G vs 6G >> and LTE vs 5G TF vs 5G NR >> technologies.

6G Mobile Communication System

6G systems will have integration of 5G along with satellite network. Following are the satellite systems developed in different countries:
• GPS (by USA)
• COMPASS (by China)
• Galileo (by EU)
• GLONASS (by Russia)
It supports local vocie coverage and other features.
Refer advantages and disadvantages of 6G wireless technology>>.

7G Mobile Communication System

The 7G network will be same as 6G. In addition 7G defines satellite functionalities in wireless mobile communication. This will provide many features and take care of all the drawbacks of previous generation of mobile wireless communication systems. The major factor here will be cost of phone call and other services. It provides seamless movement of mobile phone from one country to the other. This will be major benefits for frequent international travellers.

Useful Links on 3G, 4G

4G   3G   3G vs 4G-Difference between 3G and 4G


5G TECHNOLOGY RELATED LINKS

5G network architecture

This 5G tutorial also covers following sub topics on the 5G technology:
5G basic tutorial    5G Frequency Bands    5G millimeter wave tutorial    5G mm wave frame    5G millimeter wave channel sounding    Difference between 4G and 5G    5G testing and test equipments    5G network architecture    5G NR Physical layer    5G NR MAC layer    5G NR RLC layer    5G NR PDCP layer

5G NR Numerology | 5G NR Terminology

This 5G tutorial also covers following sub topics on the 5G technology:
• 5G NR PHY timing unit   • 5G NR SLIV   • 5G NR Mini Slot   • 5G NR Bandwidth Part   • 5G NR CORESET   • 5G NR DCI Formats   • 5G NR UCI   • 5G NR slot formats   • 5G NR RRC IEs   • 5G NR RSRP RSRQ SINR  

5G NR Control channels | 5G NR Traffic Channels | 5G NR Reference Signals and sequences


LTE RELATED LINKS

LTE tutorial   LTE features   LTE terminologies   LTE Frame   LTE TDD vs LTE FDD   LTE Channel types   LTE PSS SSS    LTE RS DMRS SRS    LTE PUSCH   LTE PUCCH   LTE PRACH   LTE PMCH    LTE PHICH    LTE PDSCH    LTE PDCCH   LTE PCFICH    LTE PBCH  

What is Difference between

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Difference between SC-FDMA and OFDM
Difference between SISO and MIMO
Difference between TDD and FDD
Difference between 802.11 standards viz.11-a,11-b,11-g and 11-n
OFDM vs OFDMA
CDMA vs GSM
Bluetooth vs zigbee

RF and Wireless Terminologies


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