Difference between Impatt diode vs Trapatt diode vs Baritt diode

This page on Impatt diode vs Trapatt diode vs Baritt diode describes difference between Impatt, Trapatt and Baritt diodes. In the year 1958 WT read discovered concept of avalanche diode. From this, it has been discovered that diode can produce negative resistance at the microwave frequencies. This is achieved by using carrier impact ionisation and drift in the high field intensity region of the reverse biased semiconductor region. From this concept three diodes impatt diode, trapatt diode and baritt diode have been found.

Impatt diode

Following are properties of Impatt diode.
Full name: Impact ionisation Avalanche Transit Time
Develoed by: RL Johnston in the year 1965.
Impatt diode Operating Frequency range: 4GHz to 200GHz
Principle of operation: Avalanche multiplication
Output power: 1Watt CW and > 400Watt pulsed
Efficiency: 3% CW and 60% pulsed below 1GHz, more efficient and more powerful than gunn diode type
Impatt diode Noise Figure: 30dB (worse than Gunn diode)
Advantages: • This microwave diode has high power capability compare to other diodes. • Output is reliable compare to other diodes.
Disadvantages: • High noise figure • high operating current • high spurious AM/FM noise
Impatt diode Applications:• Voltage controlled Impatt oscillators• low power radar system• injection locked amplifiers• cavity stabilized impatt diode oscillators

Trapatt diode

Following are properties of Trapatt diode.
Full name: Trapped Plasma Avalanche Triggered Transit
Develoed by: HJ Prager in the year 1967.
Operating Frequency range: 1 to 3GHz
Trapatt diode Principle of operation: Plasma avalanche
Output power: 250 Watt at 3GHz , 550Watt at 1GHz
Efficiency: 35% at 3GHz and 60% pulsed at 1GHz
Trapatt diode Noise Figure: Very high NF of the order of about 60dB
Advantages:• higher efficiency than impatt • very low power dissipation
Disadvantages:• Not suitable for CW operation due to high power densities • high NF of about 60dB•  upper frequency is limited to below millimeter band
Trapatt diode Applications: •  used in microwave beacons • instrument landing systems •  LO in radar

Baritt diode

Following are properties of Baritt diode.
Full name: Barrier Injection Transit Time
Develoed by: D J Coleman in the year 1971.
Operating Frequency range: 4GHz to 8GHz
Baritt diode Principle of operation: Thermionic emission
Output power: just few milliwatts
Efficiency: 5% (low frequency) , 20%( high frequency)
Baritt diode Noise Figure: low NF about 15dB
Advantages: •  Less noisy than impatt diodes •  NF of 15dB at C band using baritt amplifier
Disadvantages: •  Narrow bandwidth •  limited few mWatt of power output
Baritt diode Applications: • Mixer •  oscillator •  small signal amplifier

The major difference between IMPATT diode and BARITT diode is as follows.
➨In BARITT diode, drift of minority carriers is due to "Thermionic emission" rather than "Avalanche effect" used in IMPATT diode. As a result BARITT diodes are less noisy compare to IMPATT diode.

Also refer advantages and disadvantages of IMPATT diode >>, TRAPATT diode >> and BARITT diode >> to understand difference between them in detail.

Difference between Gunn diode and Impatt, Trapatt, Baritt diode types

Refer difference between Gunn diode, Impatt, Trapatt and Baritt diode


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