Nuclear Sensor basics | Nuclear Sensor types
This article covers Nuclear Sensor basics and Nuclear Sensor types. In addition to Nuclear sensors, links to basics and types of other sensors are also mentioned.
What are Nuclear sensors?
As we know alpha, beta, gamma, neutrons are most common ionising radiations. High level exposure of such radiations to human beings can cause various diseases including cancers. The sensors used to monitor and measure nuclear radiation levels are known as nuclear sensors.
Workers in the nuclear power plants are exposed to radiation of different types. These radiations are regularly recorded and monitored in order to keep the radiations within limits.
The figure-1 depicts Penetration Power of Nuclear Radiations such as alpha, beta, gamma, X-ray, neutrons etc. through human hand, aluminium, thin and thicker leads, concrete etc.
Nuclear sensors ensure safety of nuclear power plant workers as well as people living in the neighbourhood.
Nuclear Sensor Types
The figure-2 depicts Gamma sensor from First Sensor Inc. Nuclear sensors are categorized into nuclear particle sensors and solidstate sensors. Solidstate radiation detectors are divided into two types viz. scintillator based and direct absorption based detector.
• Nuclear particle sensors use tubes and chambers for nuclear particle detection.
• Solidstate sensors directly convert incident radiation into electric current using various materials such as germanium, silicon, cadmium zinc telluride etc. These sensors gave high energy resolutions which makes them popular for detection of exact amount of radiation energy.
Silicon PIN photodiodes are also used for detecting alpha, beta, gamma and X-ray radiations.
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