IoT based environmental monitoring system architecture

IoT-based environmental monitoring systems leverage interconnected sensors to collect real-time data on various environmental parameters such as air and water quality, temperature and humidity. These systems play a vital role in early detection of environmental hazards and support data driven decision making. It also ensures compliance with environmental regulations which contributes to environmental conservation and public health protection.

Environmental monitoring system components

The system consists of various sensors which are installed at different locations for sensing environmental parameters. The sensors are installed along with MCU (Microcontroller unit) such as ESP32 or any other microcontroller or microprocessor. The MCU board requires DC power supply which is provided using AC/DC converter. The MCU board houses wireless SoCs such as WiFi or any other cellular standards (GSM, 4G LTE, 5G etc.). Using this wireless connectivity, data collected by sensors are uploaded to the cloud server. There are numerous cloud servers such as Google Firebase, Microsoft Azure, AWS and so on. Web portals and mobile apps read the data from cloud and provide useful insights into any deviations from normal readings. Environmental management strategies check the data collected by sensors using mobile and web apps.

IoT based Environmental Monitoring System

Following are the common sensors employed to monitor various environmental parameters.
• Temperature sensors : Texas instruments TMP Series (TMP36-analog output and TMP102-digital output), Maxim DS18B20 digital temperature sensor.
• Humidity sensors : Sensirion SHT series (SHT35-analog output, SHT31-digital output), Silicon Labs Si70xx sensor
• Pressure sensors : Bosch BMP series (BMP180, BMP280) offer barometric pressure, Honeywell HSC series
• Gas sensors : Alphasense series offer electrochemical gas sensors to detect gases such as CO, NO2, SO2 and O3. Winsen ZE series produces electrochemical gas sensors.
• Particle sensors : Plantower PMS series, Sensirion SPS30
• Light sensors : TAOS TSL series offer ambient light sensing, Vishay VEML series
• Sound sensors : Knowles SP series, PUI Audio PMM Series
• Water Quality sensors : EZO series sensors offer range of sensors to measure pH, DO, conductivity etc in water.

Benefits or Advantages of environmental monitoring system

Following are the benefits or advantages of environmental monitoring system.
1. It provides comprehensive view of environmenal conditions as it monitors numerous environment parameters such as air quality, soil health, water quality, temperature, humidity, wind speed, rain fall etc.
2. It offers real time insights as IoT sensors continuously collect data. This allows prompt action during natural disasters or emergencies.
3. IoT based systems are cost effective due to their scalability and reduced man power requirements.
4. The data can be accessed remotely using web portals and android/iOS mobile applications.
5. The system functions as early warning for various environmental hazards such as chemical leaks, pollution, natural disasters etc.
6. It provides highly accurate and reliable data which ensures qualified decision making.
7. It helps to conserve natural resources, protect ecosystems and promote sustainability.
8. The collected data can be analyzed to identify trends/patterns to predict/forecast changes in the environment.
9. It helps to companies to comply with environmental regulations and standards by providing accurate data on emissions, pollutants and other impacts.
10. It can raise public awareness which helps in engaging communities in the environmental stewardship efforts.

Overall, IoT-based environmental monitoring systems play a crucial role in monitoring, managing, and protecting the environment, contributing to sustainable development and the well-being of both present and future generations.

IoT based systems

IoT Architecture Protocols and Wireless systems

RF and Wireless Terminologies