IoT based Intelligent Traffic System for Transportation

IoT enhances Intelligent Traffic Systems (ITS) by enabling the seamless integration of interconnected sensors and devices to gather real-time data on traffic flow, road conditions and vehicle movements. This data is then analyzed to optimize traffic management, improve safety and provide actionable insights for transportation authorities and drivers.

IoT facilitates communication between vehicles, infrastructure, and control centers, allowing for adaptive traffic control, dynamic route guidance and efficient emergency response in congested or critical situations.

Intelligent Traffic System (ITS) components

The ITS consists of two main modes viz. vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) as shown in figure-1. The system consists of GPS, mobile cellular networks and wifi APs (Access Points).

V2X Communication

The sensors and camera are installed at various road side junctions to check traffic congestion and violations. Moreover vehicles are also equipped with Lidar sensors to avoid collisions. GPS based sensors allow real time tracking of vehicles. The data collected by sensors are uploaded continuously to cloud servers and are being read by mobile apps and web apps. The Apps are monitored by traffic control and management agencies.

One such sensor based hardware diagram is shown in the figure-2. As shown, this IoT based ITS consists of ESP32 housing wifi, sensor interface, cloud connectivity and power supply. Cellular IC can be interfaced as per requirement such as GSM, 4G LTE or 5G NR etc.

Intelligent Traffic System

Following are the common sensors employed in ITS for transportation system monitoring.
• Inductive loop sensors: It is wireless inductive loop which is used for vehicle detection. The examples include Sensys Networks VSN240, Nortech Detection PIPS technology based sensors etc.
• Magnetic sensors: Used for vehicle detection in traffic flow monitoring systems. The examples include NVE Corporation ADXL series, Analog Devices A1366 etc.
• Radar sensors : Used for detecting vehicle presence, speed and distance. The examples include Infineon BGT24LTR11, Texas Instruments AWR series etc.
• Lidar sensors : Used for object detection, tracking and classification of intelligent transportation systems. Examples include Velodyne Lidar VLP-16, Ouster OS1 and so on.
• Camera sensors : Used for high definition video surveillance for traffic monitoring, license plate recognition, vehicle tracking and so on. Examples are camera sensors from AXIS Communications and FLIR systems.
• Ultrasonic sensors : USed for vehicle detection, parking guidance, obstacle detection and so on. Examples include MaxBotix MB7360, Pepperl + Fuchs UC series etc.

Benefits or Advantages of Intelligent Traffic System

Following are the benefits or advantages of Intelligent Traffic System (ITS).
1. IoT systems can monitor traffic flow, detect congestion and optimize traffic signal timings to improve overall traffic management. This is possible due to real time data collected by traffic sensors, cameras and GPS enabled vehicles.
2. It reduces congestion and minimizes delays for commuters and freight transport by adjusting traffic signal as per real time traffic conditions.
3. It allows fast responses during emergencies (accidents, road obstructions) which improves overall road safety. This has become possible as sensors detect vehicle speeds, detect traffic violations, identifies potential hazards and so on.
4. As it provides real time information on public transportation schedules, delays and routes, it encourages use of public transit options and helps in making informed decisions.
5. It guides drivers as per available parking spaces and reduces time to park vehicles.
6. By optimizing traffic flow and reducing congestion, ITS can help reduce fuel consumption and emissions. This can improve air quality and environmental sustainability.
7. It enables authorities to make data driven decisions and help in implementing targeted interventions to improve traffic flow and safety measures.
8. It can easily be integrated in smart city initiatives to optimize city operations and enhance quality life of residents.
9. Intelligent traffic systems (ITSs) can lead to cost savings for businesses and individuals, as well as increased productivity and economic competitiveness for cities and regions.
10. It provides a scalable and adaptable solution to address evolving transportation challenges and accomodate future trends such as autonomous vehicles and shared mobility services.

Overall, IoT-based intelligent traffic systems play a crucial role in optimizing transportation networks, improving safety and efficiency and creating more sustainable and livable cities for residents and visitors alike.

IoT based systems

IoT Architecture Protocols and Wireless systems

RF and Wireless Terminologies