The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) is one of the most useful test tool for time domain analysis of signals. It produces visual output in the form of graph or trace on the display as per voltage input. Refer oscilloscope basic article for types and manufacturers.
Oscilloscope measurements are many such as voltage, time, frequency, complex waveforms and more. The same have been described below. Modern day oscilloscopes are used even for complex modulated spectrum analysis with the help of add-on applications.
An oscilloscope with an input impedance of 1 MOhm can be used as DC/AC voltmeter by connecting voltage to be measured on Y-Axis and X plates earthed and time base off. The CRO with gain control on Y amplifiers are need to be calibrated. Gain control makes it possible to measure voltage accurately. CRO can measure AC voltages at frequencies of several MHz. It is not damaged by overloading due to protection circuitry. Other than Voltage measurements following are also measured using oscilloscope.
Time, Frequency measurements and Complex waveform analysis and measurements are also carried out using oscilloscopes.
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