IoT Tutorial

This IoT tutorial covers IoT basics, IoT applications, IoT entities, protocols, cellular IoT, IoT sensors, IoT components, IoT device requirements etc.

What is IoT?

IoT stands for interconnection of internet enabled devices or things unlike people only connectivity used in today's internet. Due to huge growth in demand for IoT compliant devices chip makers are having great future ahead. IoT is the short form of Internet of Things. According to cisco and other organizations there will be about 50 billion devices connected using internet in the year 2020. Devices based on ethernet, zigbee, bluetooth and wifi will have huge requirements in consumer electronics segment. Cellular devices based on GSM and LTE also will be available to have connectivity with cellular wireless networks, READ MORE.

IoT Applications

IoT devices are used for following applications:
•  In consumer market for smart home control(lighting,security,comfort),Optimized energy use maintenance.
•  In Industrial market for smartmeters, Wear-out sensing devices, Manufacturing control, Climate control
•  In Automotive industries for parking, traffic flow control, Anti-theft devices, Location tracking etc.
•  In Environmental for species tracking, weather prediction and resource management.
•  In agriculture market for crop management and soil analysis.
•  In military for resource allocation, threat analysis, troop monitoring etc.
•  In medical industry for wearable devices, implanted devices and telehealth services.
•  In retail for product tracking, Inventory control, focused marketing, etc.

IoT Entities

There are two major subsystems involved in the IoT network viz. front end part and back end part. Front end is mainly consists of IoT sensors which are MEMS based. It includes optical sensors, light sensors, gesture and proximity sensors, touch and fingerprint sensors, pressure sensors and more. Refer IoT sensors page.

Back end consists of cellular, wireless and wired networks which are interfaced with IoT devices. The devices will report to the central servers and also interact with databases in the backbone network. Routers and gateways are part of the wireless backbone networks.

IoT Protocol layers


As the standard has not been finalized for IoT but one can think of IoT having 4 protocol layers as shown in the figure-2. Sensing and Identification include various smart sensor devices based on GPS, RFID, WiFi etc. Network connectivity layer is based on wired and wireless network such as WLAN, WPAN, WMAN, ethernet, optical fiber and more.Other two layers are information Processing layer and application layer.

cellular IoT

Cellular IoT

Wireless cellular companies are working towards providing collectivity and enhancement to existing wireless devices to support emerging IoT market. READ MORE.

IoT Device and components

The IoT device mainly consists of battery for providing power. It should have long life approx. about 10 years. The parts include interfacing with sensors and connectivity with wireless and wired network. Hence it include small part of physical layer and also upper protocol layers to interface with application layer. Devices should support both IPV4 and IPV6 based IP protocols. IoT devices must have receiver sensitivity atleast 20dB better than non-IoT devices. The IoT devices should be cheaper about less than $10. Refer IoT components for more information.

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Main tutorial  IoT section  IoT article  Cellular IoT  Components  Sensors  INDIAN companies  Antenna Types  Wireless technologies  IoT transceiver  SoC 

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