X-Ray vs millimeter wave | Difference between X-Ray and millimeter wave

This page compares X-Ray vs millimeter wave (i.e. mm-wave) and mentions difference between X-Ray and millimeter wave (i.e. mm-wave).

Features X-Ray Millimeter Wave
Definition The term X-Ray is derived from X-radiation. It is form of electromagnetic radiation. It has wavelength longer compare to Gamma rays and shorter compare to UV rays. Millimeter waves occupy EM spectrum from 30 GHz to 300 GHz band. They are radio frequency waves which travels at speed of light.
Wavelength 0.01 to 10 nanometers 1 mm to 10 mm
Frequency 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz i.e. 3 x 1016 Hz to 3 x 1019 Hz 30 GHz to 300 GHz
Transmit Power It is about 0.1 Watt to 1 Watt or 20 to 30 dBm , which depends on X-ray machine type and application usage. EIRP of about 40 dBm for 57 GHz to 71 GHz frequency range.
Cost Analog X-Ray units cost $40 K to $80 where as Digital X-Ray units cost $125K to $235K. Millimeter wave scanners cost about $180K which are used at airports for full body scanning.
Advantages • It has low radiation compare to CT scan.
• They are not absorbed very much by air.
• It helps to diagnose tumours easily without the need of surgery.
• They are widely used by radiologists to identify cracks or any injury inside or around bones.
• It is used for low power and less distance communication.
• It allows use of high EIRP.
• It is widely used in wireless communication (e.g. 802.11ad, wirelessHD, 5G NR) due to high bandwidth and high data rate applications.
• 3D image can be obtained using mm wave scanners.
Disadvantages • X-ray does not provide 3D information.
• Due to its radiation, it mutates cells which causes ionisation which causes cancer.
• Bones can block significant diagnostic data as it absorbs radiation.
• It is very much absorbed in the air due to water molecules and oxygen particles.
• They can not penetrate through the walls.
Applications medical imaging used to treat cancer and to explore cosmos, to produce images of the bones to check for cracks or fractures mm-wave therapy is used in medical processes at wavelength of 7.5 to 4.3 mm to treat various diseases as well as to treat pain. Millimeter waves are also used in motion sensors, radars, intrusion alarms, automatic doors, collision avoidance systems etc. They are also used in millimeter wave wireless systems such as WiGig, 5G NR etc.

X-Ray and Millimeter wave related links

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Advantages and disadvantages of X-Ray
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Millimeter wave products

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