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Types of Brain waves Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, Gamma waves

This page defines brain waves and mention different types of brain waves viz. Delta wave, Theta wave, Alpha wave, Beta wave and Gamma wave with their frequency values and amplitude curves.

What are Brain waves ?

It is produced by communication between neurons by electrical pulses based on our emotions, thoughts and behaviours. Brain waves are acquired using sensors placed on the scalp or within the scalp.

Normal brain function involves continuous electrical activity which can be recorded by EEG (Electroencephalogram). As mentioned patterns of neoronal electrical activity recorded are called brain waves. Brain waves are continuous train of peaks and troughs. They are expressed in units of Hertz (Hz).

Each person's brain waves are unique and they change with age, sensory stimuli, brain disease and chemical state of the person's body. The brain waves ranges specify different states of human mind from deep sleep to high arousal.

Types of Brain waves

The different types of brain waves are divided based on their frequencies and amplitude response as described below.
Brain wave types are infra low, delta wave, theta wave, alpha wave, beta wave and gamma wave. Brain waves with frequencies lower than 0.5 Hz are known as infra-low brain waves. It is difficult to detect infra-low brain waves due to its slow nature. Hence research studies are not much conducted on this brain wave. Let us study other types of brain waves with their frequency and amplitude response.

Delta wave

Delta wave

➨Frequency range : From 0.5 Hz to 4 Hz
➨The amplitude curve is shown in the figure above.
➨It signifies deep sleep.
➨Healing and regeneration are stimulated in this state.

Theta wave

Theta wave

➨Frequency range : From 4 Hz to 8 Hz
➨The amplitude curve is shown in the figure above.
➨It signifies "drowsiness" i.e. first stage of sleep.
➨This brain wave type is our gateway to learning, memory and intuition.

Alpha wave

Alpha wave

➨Frequency range : From 8 Hz to 14 Hz
➨The amplitude curve is shown in the figure above.
➨This brain wave type represent the overall coordination, calmness, alertness of mental state, mind and body integration and learning.

Beta wave

Beta wave

➨Frequency range : From 14 Hz to 30 Hz
➨The amplitude curve is shown in the figure above.
➨It signifies highly alert and focused state of human being.

Gamma wave

Gamma wave

➨Frequency range : From 38 Hz to 42 Hz
➨The amplitude curve is shown in the figure above.
➨It signifies fastest brain activity responsible for cognitive functioning, learning, memory and information processing.
➨It is considered that gamma brain wave rhythms are responsible for modulated perception, consciousness and spiritual emergence.


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