MEMS sensor basics

This page covers MEMS sensor basics and mention MEMS sensor types. The types include accelerometers, force sensors, humidity sensors, pressure sensors etc.

MEMS sensor is the short form of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System sensor. These sensors will have very small devices with 1 µm-100 µm size. An MEMS sensor will have atleast 1 mechanical element or functionality.

At this micrometric scale, weight of particles is negligible compare to other forces. This is the principle behind MEMS sensor.

MEMS sensor types are accelerometers, pressure sensors, gas sensors, humidity sensors and gyrosensors etc.

MEMS Sensor types

Gyrosensors and Accelerometers: These type of MEMS sensors are used for calculation of angular motion or displacement. The main principle behind these sensors is measurement of angular movement w.r.t. time (i.e. X-Y-Z axial measurements). These sensors also act as temperature sensors. These sensors are used in many different applications such as digital compass, as gravity sensor, GPS tracking etc.

Humidity Sensors: These type of MEMS sensors are widely used in mines, power plants, dockyards and green houses. Humidity sensors work on the principle of absorption of gas in surrounding air. This will bend microscopic cantilever which will cause change in the doped resistance in the absense of gravity. This is sensed electrically in order to utilize the functionality. Refer humidity sensor for definition of humidity and various types of humidity sensors which include capacitive sensor, electrical conductivity sensor, thermal conductivity sensor, optical hygrometer, oscillating hygrometer etc.

Force Sensors: Refer force sensor which covers spring loaded force sensor with LVDT, force sensor with pressure transducer and strain gauge.

Pressure Sensors: Refer pressure sensor for basic functions and types of pressure sensors e.g. Mercury pressure sensor, Piezoresistive pressure sensor, Capacitive pressure sensor, Optoelectronic pressure sensor etc.

Sensors and Transducers Related Links

Proximity Sensor
Occupancy Sensor vs Motion Sensor
LVDT and RVDT sensor
Position, displacement and level sensor
force sensor and strain sensor
temperature sensor
pressure sensor

Also refer IoT compliant sensors which includes ambient light sensor, optical sensor, gesture sensor, proximity sensor, touch sensor, fingerprint sensor etc.

Refer Sensors and transducers article which covers types, basic functions and provide links to sensors and transducers. It include temperature sensor, humidity sensor, strain sensor, proximity or occupancy sensor, force or load sensor, voltage and current sensor, pressure sensor, speed sensor, resistance sensor, power sensor, level sensor, event or state sensor etc.

RF and Wireless Terminologies