Level crossing rate vs Average Fade Duration

This page defines Level crossing rate vs Average Fade Duration and mentions difference between Level crossing rate and Average Fade Duration.

These terms are related to Radio propagation.

Level Crossing Rate (LCR)

• It is the measurement of average number of times a signal crosses a certain level.
• It is defined as follows.
• NR is expressed in units of fades per second where as LCR is expressed in crossings per sec.

Level Crossing Rate

Average Fade Duration (AFD)

• It is the measurement of average time over which the signal below a certain level.
• Both LCR and AFD can be used to design signaling format/diversity scheme for cellular systems.
• AFD is expressed in units of seconds. Average Fade Duration can be expressed by following formula.

Average Fade Duration

➨ Here, Ρ = R / Rrms is value of the specified amplitude level
➨R is normalized to local rms amplitude of the fading envelope
➨Rrms is based on the Rayleigh distribution of the received signal envelope


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