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Difference between Core Type Transformer and Shell Type Transformer

This page compares Core Type Transformer Vs Shell Type Transformer and mentions difference between Core Type Transformer and Shell Type Transformer.

Introduction: The transformers are classified into different types based on number of phases, its construction, voltage level and applications. Based on construction, transformer is categorized into Core type, Shell type and Berry type.

Core Type Transformer

Core Type Transformer

• The core can be square or rectangular.
• It is made of silicon or sheet steel with 4% silicon. It is laminated to reduce eddy current losses.
• The vertical portion on which coil is wound is called limb. The top and bottom is called yoke.
• The permeability of material used for core must have high value of µr > 1000.
• It has single magnetic circuit with two limbs/arms as shown in the figure-1. As shown primary and secondary windings are wound on two limbs of the core.

Shell Type Transformer

Shell Type Transformer

• It has double magnetic circuit as shown in figure-2.
• The core is rectangular having three limbs/arms and two yokes.
• The core surrounds the windings.
• The primary and secondary windings are wound on central limb.
• The core is made of very thin laminations of high grade silicon steel material to reduce the eddy current loss and hysteresis losses in the core.

Difference between Core Type Transformer and Shell Type Transformer

Following table summarizes difference between Core Type and Shell Type Transformer with respect to various parameters.

Parameters Core Type Transformer Shell Type Transformer
Construction Winding encircles the core. Core encircles most of the winding.
Number of magnetic circuits Only one Two
Number of limbs in a core (for single phase type) Two Three
Construction complexity Simple Difficult
Cooling It is better as more surface is exposed to atmosphere. It is not very effective.
Repairing or Maintenance It is easy to repair as coils are easy to remove. It is not easy to repair as for removing any windings large number of laminations are also required to be removed.
Application Preferred for low voltage transformer. Used for very high voltage transformer.
Type of coils Cylindrical coils Multilayer disc type or sandwich coils
Losses More Less
Insulation More Less
Copper requirement More Less

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