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Difference between Aperture tuning and Impedance tuning 5G mobile,IoT designs

This page compares Aperture tuning vs Impedance tuning used in antenna tuning and describes difference between antenna aperture tuning and antenna impedance tuning in 5G mobile and IoT device designs.

What is Antenna Tuning in 5G

The antenna tuning is required to utilize bandwidth effectively for carrier aggregation and to keep power consumption lower. 5G system requires MIMO and Carrier aggregation (CA) to achieve higher throughput and bandwidth efficiency. Multi-antenna array is needed for MIMO which requires antenna tuning techniques. Antenna tuning is also required in order to adjust resonance frequencies.

Antenna tuners are configured to improve matching between antenna and RF Front End circuits. This maintains RF performance under changed conditions with various parameters viz. frequency band, power level, impedance, temperature and so on.

There are two methods to tune antenna or MIMO array antenna. Both of these methods require antenna switches which are available as commercial surface mount ICs.
➨Impedance tuning
➨Aperture tuning

Antenna aperture tuning

Antenna Aperture tuning

• It is usually achieved by switch which must have low loss to avoid degradation of antenna radiating efficiency.
• The switches can be shunt type or series type. Shunt type is widely used due to less ohmic loss than series type. Hence high radiation efficiency can be achieved.
• It allows 5G system with antenna to switch between frequencies by two ways. Individual resonance can be tuned either capacitively or inductively. Aperture switch plus antenna acts like RLC circuit which modifies natural frequencies of antenna.
• Using aperture tuning, electrical length of antenna GND leg is adjusted to shift resonance of operating band.
• It requires enough electronic circuitry for external bypassing.
• It does not require filtering.
• Aperture tuning helps to boost isotropic sensitivity & radiated power. This is achieved by optimization of efficiencies for transmit/receive frequencies.
• Example : QAT3514 device functions as SP4T switch.

Antenna impedance tuning

Antenna Impedance tuning

• This technique broaden the antenna bandwidth so that uniform insertion loss and return loss can be achieved at multiple frequencies for both transmit and receive directions.
• Due to broadning of bandwidth, undesired frequencies are passed. To stop, RF filtering is employed.
• Impedance tuning switch and antenna form equivalent RLC circuit like aperture tuning above.
• Impedance tuning helps to boost power transfer between antenna & RFFE (Radio Frequency Front End).
• It requires external passive components for bypassing. • It requires filtering.

Impedance tuning improves S11 and system efficiency accordingly. But it does not improve antenna radiation efficiency as antenna structure has not been changed. Hence antenna aperture tuning is needed to change the radiation principle of the antenna without changing the antenna structure.

5G NR Numerology | 5G NR Terminology

5G NR Control channels | 5G NR Traffic Channels | 5G NR Reference Signals and sequences


This 5G tutorial also covers following sub topics on the 5G technology:
5G basic tutorial
5G Frequency Bands
5G millimeter wave tutorial
5G mm wave frame
5G millimeter wave channel sounding
Difference between 4G and 5G
5G testing and test equipments
5G network architecture
5G NR Physical layer
5G NR MAC layer
5G NR RLC layer
5G NR PDCP layer

IoT Wireless Technologies

WLAN    ➤THREAD    ➤EnOcean    ➤LoRa    ➤SIGFOX    ➤WHDI    ➤Zigbee   ➤6LoWPAN   ➤Zigbee RF4CE   ➤Z-Wave   ➤NFC   ➤RFID   ➤Lonworks   ➤CEBus   ➤UPB  

What is Difference between

difference between FDM and OFDM
Difference between SC-FDMA and OFDM
Difference between SISO and MIMO
Difference between TDD and FDD
Difference between 802.11 standards viz.11-a,11-b,11-g and 11-n
Bluetooth vs zigbee
Fixed wimax vs mobile
wibro vs mobile wimax
Microcontroller vs microprocessor

RF and Wireless Terminologies

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