Vehicular wireless communication tutorial | V2V vs V2i,C2C vs C2i

This page of tutorials section covers vehicular wireless communication tutorial.It covers V2V vs V2i or C2C vs C2i communication types. V2V and V2i standards for Vehicle to Vehicle and Vehicle to Infrastructure communication respectively. C2C and C2i standards for Car to Car and Car to Infrastructure communication respectively.

In vehicular wireless communication there are two types of communications viz. Vehicle to Vehicle and between Vehicle to road side infrastructure. These communications will help create Intelligent Transport System (ITS). Vehicles or cars will pass informations such as Speed, Direction of travel, Location, loss of stability etc. between each other.

The vehicular wireless communication is based on Mobile AdHoc Network (MANET) architecture. MANET is the subset of VANET. Refer MANET vs VANET for more information.

V2V vs V2i type vehicular communication Fig:1 Vehicular Wireless Communication System architecture

V2V (Vehicle to Vehicle) or C2C (Car to Car) Communication

V2V (Vehicle to Vehicle) or C2C (Car to Car) Communication is based on ITS-G5 specifications. The specification covers protocol stack comprising sub layers namely Physical Layer and MAC layer. The system works on following frequency bands in 5.9GHz range. The transceivers based on different vehicles can send, capture and re-transmit the information.

ITS type Frequency Band Applications/Usage
ITS-G5A 5875 MHz to 5905 MHz ITS road safety related
ITS-G5B 5855 MHz to 5875 MHz ITS non safety related
ITS-G5C 5470 MHz to 5725 MHz RLAN (BRAN/WLAN)
ITS-G5D 5905 MHz to 5925 MHz Future ITS related

The other silent features of V2V or C2C communication system are as follows:
• The system is wifi based as per IEEE 802.11p specifications.
• It supports bandwidths 5/10/20 MHz.
• It is short range communication system covering 300 meters of distance.
• The system supports mesh based architecture.

Apart from WLAN 802.11p, other wireless standards such as bluetooth, Zigbee and UWB can also be used for intra vehicle communications. Refer tutorials on Bluetooth, Zigbee and UWB for more information.

The vehicular wireless communication system comprised of two parts as mentioned below.
1. OBU (On-Board Unit)/OBE (On-Board Equipment)
2. RSU (Roadside Unit) /RSE (Roadside Equipment)

V2i (Vehicle to Infrastructure) or C2i (Vehicle to Infrastructure) Communication

Various cellular technologies can be explored for V2i or C2i communication. Typically wireless technologies such as Mobile WiMAX(16e), GSM and LTE are being explored for this type of communication. Refer Cellular communication tutorial for more information.

What is Difference between

difference between FDM and OFDM
Difference between SC-FDMA and OFDM
Difference between SISO and MIMO
Difference between TDD and FDD
Difference between 802.11 standards viz.11-a,11-b,11-g and 11-n
Bluetooth vs zigbee
Fixed wimax vs mobile

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