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GSM tutorial | Tutorial on GSM architecture

This GSM tutorial covers GSM basics, gsm architecture and gsm system features. This basic tutorial on gsm architecture also covers GSM burst types, GSM frame structure, gsm channels, gsm physical layer and so on.

GSM introduction

GSM is the short form of Global System for Mobile Communications. It is called 2G or Second Generation technology. It is developed to make use of same subscriber units or mobile phone terminals throughout the world. There are various GSM standards such as GSM900, EGSM900, GSM1800 and GSM 1900; they mainly differ based on RF carrier frequency band and bandwidth. This gsm tutorial covers network architecture, network elements, various interfaces, specifications, GSM frame structure or GSM frame hierarchy, GSM burst types, GSM physical layer, GSM physical channels, GSM logical channels and their functions, logical channel mapping, GSM mobile network entry procedure, GSM MO call and GSM MT call, VAMOS basics, AMR basics and MSK & GMSK modulation types.

GSM Architecture

GSM network is consists of Mobile station, Base station subsystem and Network and operation subsystem. Following figure depicts complete GSM system network architecture.

gsm architecture
Fig.1 GSM Architecture

Mobile Station- This Mobile station is GSM mobile phone equipment which houses DSP,RF chip and SIM(subscriber Identity Module). This SIM is enough to carry to avail the service of GSM network. SIM contains subscriber related all the information, network with which subscriber is subscribed with and encryption related information.

Base station Subsystem- Base station subsystem houses Base Transceiver station-BTS and Base station controller-BSC. This subsystem take care of radio control related functions and provides GSM air interface for GSM mobile phones to connect with GSM network. To provide GSM service, region/city on earth is divided into various cells. The cell size is usually about 100m to about 35 km. BTS coverage is limited to this cell. Like this many BTSs cover entire region. All this BTSs are interfaced with one BSC in various ways mesh, star etc. This BSC takes care of radio frequency assignments to the mobile phones, takes care of handoff within BSS i.e. between one BTS and the other BTS.

Network Subsystem (NSS) - This subsystem provides interface between cellular system and circuit switched telephone network i.e. PSTN. It performs switching and operation & maintenance related functions. NSS takes care of call processing functions such as call setup, switching, tear down and also hand over between BSCs. NSS takes care of security and authentication related functions. There are various network elements in this subsystem as mentioned in GSM network architecture above. They are explained below. These are basically database elements.
HLR-Home Location Register, it stores permanent and temporary subscriber related information.
VLR- Visitor Location Register, it stores visitor subscriber related information about its facilities, the network it is subscribed to, and its home location and so on.
AUC- Authentication center, used to authenticate activities in the system. It holds encryption (A5 key) and authentication keys (A3 key)in both HLR and VLR.
EIR- Equipment Identification Register, it helps in security as it keeps track of equipment type available in Mobile Station or Terminal.

GSM Interfaces

Air interface between Mobile station and BTS
Abis interface between BTS and BSC
A interface between BSC and MSC
SS7 interface between MSC and PSTN
Refer GSM network interfaces page of gsm tutorial for detailed description.

GSM system Specifications

Access Method- TDMA/FDMA
Uplink frequency band- 890 to 915 MHz
Downlink frequency band- 935 to 960 MHz
System Bandwidth- 200 KHz
No. of frequency channels or ARFCN (Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number)-124
Users per channel-8
Frame duration-4.615ms
Spectral efficiency-1.35 b/s/Hz
Data rate per user- 33.6 kbps (270.833 kbps Gross data rate for 8 users/8users)

GSM Frame Structure

gsm frame structure

The GSM frame structure is designated as hyperframe, superframe, multiframe and frame. The minimum unit being frame (or TDMA frame) is made of 8 time slots. One GSM hyperframe composed of 2048 superframes. Each GSM superframe composed of multiframes (either 26 or 51 as described below). Each GSM multiframe composed of frames (either 51 or 26 based on multiframe type). Each frame composed of 8 time slots. Hence there will be total of 2715648 TDMA frames available in GSM and the same cycle continues.

As shown in the figure, there are two varients to multiframe structure.
1. 26 frame multiframe - Called traffic multiframe,composed of 26 bursts in a duration of 120ms, out of these 24 are used for traffic, one for SACCH and one is not used.
2. 51 frame multiframe- Called control multiframe,composed of 51 bursts in a duration of 235.4 ms. This type of multiframe is divided into logical channels. These logical channels are time sheduled by BTS. Always occur at beacon frequency in time slot 0, it may also take up other time slots if required by system for example 2,4,6.

Following are possible channel combinations in GSM system which network(BTS) will adopt based on need of traffic channels versus signalling(control) gsm channels. They are called as combined and non-combined type, refer following links for more.

Noncombined 51-frame multiframe configuration

GSM noncombined channel configuration TS0 GSM noncombined channel configuration TS1

Follow link below for the complete chart of this configurations for TS0 and TS1. In noncombined configuration, dedicated signaling channels are not combined with BCCH/CCCH and thus require separate time slot(TS1). FCCH,SCH,BCCH and CCCH channels are mapped on TS0.
GSM Noncombined channel Configuration➤➤

Combined 51 frame multiframe configuration

GSM combined channel configuration

Follow link below for the complete chart of this configurations for TS0. In combined configuration, FCCH,SCH,BCCH,CCCH channels are present along with SDCCH on ime slot TS0. Hence dedicated signaling channels SDCCH are combined with BCCH/CCCH on the same time slot TS0. SDCCH also can be mapped on TS1 in addition to TS0; even SDCCH can be mapped on to anyother time slots also.
GSM Combined channel configuration➤➤

GSM Channels

gsm channels

There are two main types of GSM channels viz. physical channel and logical channel. Physical channel is specified by specific time slot/carrier frequency. Logical channel run over physical channel i.e. logical channels are time multiplexed on physical channels; each physical channel(time slot at one particular ARFCN) will have either 26 Frame MF(Multi-frame) or 51 Frame MF structure describe here. logical channels are classified into traffic channel and control channel. Traffic channel carry user data. Control channels are interspersed with traffic channels in well specified ways.

There are various control channels such as BCCH (Broadcast control channel), SCH (synchronous channel), FCCH ( Frequency control channel), DCCH(Dedicated control channel). Traffic channel is designated as TCH.
Refer GSM BCCH(Broadcast Control Channel) , • GSM FCCH(Frequency Correction Channel) ,, • GSM SCH(Synchronization Channel) , • GSM RACH(Random Access Channel) , • GSM PCH(Paging Channel) , • GSM CCCH(Common Control Channel) , • GSM FACCH(Fast Associated Control Channel) , • GSM SACCH(Slow Associated Control Channel) , • GSM SDCCH(Standalone Dedicated Control Channel) • GSM TCH(Traffic Channel) and • GSM AGCH(Access Grant Channel) for more information.

GSM Burst Types

GSM burst types includes normal burst, frequency correction burst, Synchronization burst, dummy burst and access burst. Each of these bursts are used for specific purposes. Normal burst is used for all common applications which include exchange of signaling traffic and user traffic. Access burst is used by mobile to make first attempt to communicate with the network (i.e. BTS). Before normal burst and access bursts are used, BTS in gsm uses two special bursts known as frequency correction burst and synchronization burst in order to allow mobile subscriber (MS) to synchronize in frequency and time.

GSM Protocol Stack

gsm protocol stack

The figure depicts gsm protocol stack layers at various GSM network elements viz. MS, BTS, BSC and MSC. Refer gsm stack >> for more information.

GSM Physical Layer

gsm physical layer transmitter

GSM physical layer i.e. layer-1 which sits below GSM layer-2(LAPDm). As shown it consists of various modules viz. cyclic encoder, convolution encoding, interleaving, ciphering, burst formation, differential encoding, GMSK modulation and RF upconversion. Refer GSM PHY >> for more information.

This GSM tutorial for beginners is very useful to understand various aspects of GSM technology including gsm architecture.

Resources on GSM basics

This GSM tutorial covers following sub topics in order to understand gsm basics.
Frame  Burst types  PHY  gsm stack  speech processing  ARFCN  Channel types  GSM Security  Network Entry  Mobile basics  GSM Mobile originated call flow  GSM Mobile Terminated call flow  GSM downlink packet switched data call/a>  GSM uplink packet switched data call 

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