What is wave impedance?

This page describes basics of wave impedance with respect to propagation of electromagnetic waves.

As we know during EM wave(electromagnetic wave) propagation in a medium, changing magnetic field(H) produces electric field(E) and vice versa. The waves propagate due to two oscillating H and E fields. The region near to the source of radiation will experience high intensity of fields.

Wave impedance is defined by ratio of E and H.

Wave impedance = |E|/|H|

Wave impedance is high in the region where E is pre-dominant, for example straight wire fed by high impedance voltage driven source.

Wave impedance is low in the region where H is pre-dominant, for example loop/coil fed by low impedance current driven source.

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