monolithic vs hybrid

This page on monolithic vs hybrid describes difference between monolithic and hybrid. Both the terms are associated with fabrication of microwave integrated circuits.


Monolithic method is suitable at high frequency where in hybrid parasitics restrict the performance. GaAs is suitable due to its characteristics for monolithic fabrication. In monolithic integrate circuit devices are mounted on single piece semiconductor material(e.g. silicon). Using specific process millions of devices are interconnected on this surface.


Hybrid method use very high quality substrates with active devices. The devices are interconnected with the use of bonding wires(metal lines) deposited on insulating substrate i.e. Hybrid circuit is coated in an epoxy material and then bonded to a dielectric substrate. The devices are made of semiconductor materials e.g. Si,GaAs, InP. Hybrid circuits are either thick film or thin film type.

Active devices such as Gunn diodes,IMPATT or transistors are commonly used in hybrid MICs.

For the case of monolithic integrated circuit,all the components are formed together by various methods/processes which include diffusion or ion implantation. While in the case of hybrid integrated circuits, interconnections are usually established by TEM mode transmission lines(e.g. microstrip lines).

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