MOSFET vs IGBT | difference between MOSFET and IGBT

This page compares MOSFET vs IGBT and mentions tabular difference between MOSFET and IGBT. MOSFET full form is Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor and IGBT full form is Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor.

What is MOSFET and its full form ?

There are two types of MOSFET viz. n-channel MOSFET and p-channel MOSFET. It can also be classified as Depletion MOSFET and Enhancement MOSFET.

MOSFET structure and symbol

The full form of MOSFET is Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor. Figure-1 depicts 600 Volt SJ-MOSFET structure and circuit symbol.
Refer Depletion MOSFET vs Enhancement MOSFET➤ and MOSFET Fabrication Technology➤.

What is IGBT and its full form ?

IGBT structure and symbol

The full form of IGBT is Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. Figure-2 depicts 600 Volt G6H Trench IGBT structure and circuit symbol. Both the structures look same, but the main difference in IGBT p-substrate is added below the n-substrate.

There are two IGBT structures viz. NPT-IGBT (known as homogeneous structure) and PT-IGBT (known as epitaxial structure).

The PT (i.e. punch through) IGBT structure shows characteristic epitaxial layers with an N+-doped region (i.e. buffer layer) and N--region on a p-doped substrate wafer.

The NPT (i.e. non punch through) IGBT structure is homogeneous N- -doped wafer. On backward side, a specially formed p-layer is created during wafer processing.

When one has to select between IGBT and MOSFET, IGBT is preferred for breakdown voltage greater than 1000Volt. MOSFET is preferred for breakdown voltages less than 250Volt.

output characteristics MOSFET vs IGBT

Figure-3 mentions comparison of output characteristics between MOSFET and IGBT. Following table compares both MOSFET and IGBT. These factors will help one select the right device based on application and design need.

Tabular difference between MOSFET and IGBT

Preferred device based on MOSFET IGBT
Based on conditions High Switching Frequency (> 100kHz) Low Switching Frequency (<20kHz)
Wide line and load conditions High Power levels (above say 3 kW)
dv/dt on the diode is limited High dv/dt needed to be handled by the diode
High light load efficiency is needed High full load Efficiency is needed
Based on applications Motor Drives (<250W) Motor Drives (> 250W)
Universal input AC-DC flyback and forward converter power supplies UPS and Welding H Bridge inverters
Low to Mid power PFCs (75W to 3 kW) High power PFCs (> 3kW)
Solar Micro Inverters High Power Solar/Wind Inverters (> 5kW)
Applications • SMPS (Hard switching greater than 200 KHz),
• SMPS (ZVS less than 1000 watts),
• Battery charging
• UPS(constant load, typically at low frequency),
• Welding(high average current, low frequency <50KHz, ZVS circuitry),
• Motor control(frequency <20KHz, short circuit/in-rush limit protection )
• Low power lighting(low frequency < 100 KHz)

Above mentioned difference between MOSFET and IGBT in tabular form is very useful to understand MOSFET vs IGBT difference.

MOSFET and BJT related links

PNP Transistor Vs NPN Transistor➤
Depletion MOSFET vs Enhancement MOSFET➤
MOSFET Fabrication Technology➤
MOSFET vs BJT-Difference between MOSFET and BJT➤
Application Note-MOSFET as switch and amplifier➤
Difference between NMOS vs PMOS➤

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