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THz to Optical conversion in 6G wireless communication

This article describes THz to Optical conversion in 6G wireless communication using THz to Optical converter. It also describes Optical to THz conversion. THz refers to radio frequencies at Terahertz range.

Introduction: The optical fiber network is seamlessly integrated with THz (terahertz) frequency based wireless system to leverage benefits of both viz. huge bandwidth of optical communication and high mobility of wireless communication. The latest cellular technologies such as 5G NR (New Radio) and 6G make use of THz over fiber system.

THz over fiber architecture

The figure-1 depicts Terahertz (THz) over fiber architecture. As shown, fiber optic network is interfaced with terahertz (THz) wireless system using O/T converter and T/O converter transceivers. Horn antenna is used for wireless signal transmission and reception at THz frequencies. Baseband processing is carried out using DSP (Digital Signal Processor).

Optical to THz Conversion

Optical to THz Conversion

The figure-2 depicts Optical to THz conversion.
• As shown, baseband signal waveform is modulated on optical carrier frequency at "fo" frequency.
• This optical signal frequency is translated to THz RF carrier using ultra fast UTC-PD (Uni-Travelling Carrier Photodiode).
• UTC-PD mixes CW LO (Local Oscillator) at fTx,LO with optical carrier frequency to generate frequencies at THz frequency range.
• The converted THz frequency signal is transmitted into the air using horn antenna.

THz to Optical Conversion

THz to Optical Conversion

The figure-3 depicts THz to optical conversion.
• The THz signal is received using horn antenna and it is amplified by THz amplifier before T/O conversion.
• The amplified THz signal is given as one input to MZM along with other input at CW optical carrier frequency of fRx,LO. MZM is Mach-Zehnder Modulator which generates modulated optical carrier frequency corresponds to input THz frequency received by the horn antenna.
• The output of MZM is amplified using EDFA i.e. Earth Doped Fiber Amplifier.
• MZM output contains both upper and low modulation sidebands. BPF (Band Pass Filter) is used to select the appropriate sideband after eliminating carrier frequency and undesited sideband.

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