IoT based weather monitoring system architecture

Introduction:
The system employs sensors to collect real time data on various atmospheric conditions such as temperature, humidity, wind speed, precipitation, rain etc. These systems play crucial role in various sectors which include disaster management, transportation, agriculture etc. The weather data can be checked from anywhere using mobile and web apps which helps in taking proactive decisions in response to change in weather patterns.

Weather Monitoring System

Like any other IoT system, it consists of sensors, MCU (Microcontroller Unit) or MPU (Microprocessor Unit) including wireless module, power supply and cloud connectivity. Sensors are installed at different locations as required for gathering weather related data as described below. MCU or MPU collects data from sensors and uploads them to cloud servers such as AWS, Azure, ThinkSpeak, Google etc. Power supply is needed to power the MCU/MPU. Cloud connectivity can be done using wifi or cellular connections.

IoT based Weather Monitoring System

Following are the common sensors employed to monitor various parameters related to weather.
• Temperature sensors : Texas Instruments TMP Series and sensors from Maxim Integrated
• Humidity sensors : Examples include Sensirion (SHT31, SHT35) and Silicon Labs (Si70xx series )
• Pressure sensors : Examples : Bosch BMP series, Honeywell HSC series
• Wind sensors : Used to measure wind speed and direction, Examples : Davis Instruments 6410 series, Young Industries 05103 series
• Rainfall sensors : Used to measure rainfall intensity and accumulation. Examples : Texas Instruments (Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge) , Hydrological Services TB series etc.
• Solar radiation sensors : Apogee Instuments SQ series, kipp & Zonen CMP series etc.
• UV radiation sensors : Examples : Skye Instruments UVS series, Vernier Software UV-VIS Spectrometer
• Visibility sensors : Examples : Vaisala PWD series, Optical Scientific Visibility Meter etc.

Benefits or Advantages of weather monitoring system

Following are the benefits or advantages of weather monitoring system.
1. These systems provide valuable information on weather conditions to the farmers. These informations help farmers to optimize irrigation, planting, harvesting schedules and reduce crop losses due to adverse weather and improvement in overall agricultural productivity.
2. IoT sensors minitor weather conditions to optimize energy generation and consumption. It enables energy providers to adjust renewable energy production as per weather forecasts. Moreover it helps consumers to optimize energy usage for heating, cooling and lighting.
3. It provides real time weather data which enables accurate weather forecasting and helps in timely decision making.
4. These IoT based systems serve as early warning systems for severe weather events such as storms, floods, hurricanes and wildfires.
5. The collected valuable data helps engineers to design resilient structures that can withstand extreme weather conditions and enables proactive maintenance to prevent weather related damage.
6. It provides real time information to authorities which help them in planning rescue and evacuation efforts.
7. It tracks environmental parameters such as air quality, UV levels, pollution levels which provides valuable data for environmental monitoring and public health initiatives.
8. It provides valuable information to tourists and outdoor enthusiasts. This enables them to plan various activities including skiing, hiking and outings as per current and future forecasts.
9. It helps in meteorological studies, climate research and educational purposes.
10. It enables more precise predictions of weather patterns and phenomena.

Overall, IoT-based weather monitoring systems play a crucial role in providing accurate and timely weather information for various applications, from public safety and disaster preparedness to agriculture, energy management and environmental protection.

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