Op-Amp, Operational Amplifier
This page on op-amp cover Operational Amplifier basics, its use as inverting, non inverting, summing amplifier, voltage comparator and more.
op-amp stands for Operational Amplifier. Earlier op-amps were made using discrete components. They were used in analog computers for various functions such as addition, division and so on. Now-a-days operational amplifiers are available in IC form. They are used for many applications. The popular among them is; as high gain DC and AC voltage amplifier.
Typical Op-amp device consists of 20 transistors and few of resistors as well as capacitors. Op-amp devices will have following basic properties.
• A very high voltage gain: about 105
• A very high input impedance: typically about 106 to 1012
• A very low output impedance: About 100 Ohm
Following table mentions values of different properties of OP-AMP.
|Specifications||Ideal Value||Practical Value|
|Input resistance||∞||106Ω or 1MΩ|
|Output resistance||zero||10Ω to 100Ω|
|Bandwidth||∞||106Hz or 1 MHz|
|CMRR||∞||106 or 120 dB|
|Slew Rate||∞||80 V/µsec|
Operational Amplifier Working
As shown in the figure, there are two inputs and one output of op-amp. Non inverting is marked as + and inverting is marked as - as shown on the amplifier symbol. Figure depicts TL081C or 741 op-amp in IC form with pin details. +/-Vs has range from +/-5V to +/-15V.
Basically an op-amp is a differential amplifier which amplifies difference between voltages V1 and V2 provided at its inputs. There are three conditions and based on these appropriate output is produced as mentioned below.
• If V2>V1, then Vo is positive
• If V2<V1, then V0 is negative
• If V2=V1, Vo should be zero
In general, output is given by,
Vo=Ao X (V2-V1),
Where, Ao is the open loop voltage gain.
As mentione there are many uses of op-amp as mentioned below.
• Operational amplifier can be used as inverting amplifier.
• Op-amp can be used as summing amplifier.
• Op-amp can be used as non inverting amplifier.
• It can be used as a voltage comparator.
• It can be used in a power supply.
• It can be used in a integrated circuit for special applications, such as audio pre-amplifier, audio power amplifier and high frequency amplifier etc.
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