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4 port circulator vs 3 port circulator

A circulator is a multiport device, in which EM-wave can travel from one port to the next immediate port in one direction. Commonly 3 port and 4 port circulators are mostly used.Here we will see difference between 4 port circulator and 3 port circulator .


4 port circulator

The 4 port circulator can be made using two magic-T and a non reciprocal 180 degree phase shifter. It can also be made using a combination of two 3dB side hole directional couplers with two non reciprocal phase shifters. S matrix of perfectly matched,lossless, non reciprocal 4 port circulator is defined below.

[S] =
|0 0 0 1 |
|1 0 0 0 |
|0 1 0 0 |
|0 0 1 0 |


3 port circulator

The 3 port circulator is formed by a 120 degree H plane waveguide OR by using strip line symmetrical Y junction with a central ferrite disc. S matrix of perfectly matched,lossless, non reciprocal 3 port circulator is defined below.

[S] =
|0 0 S13|
|S21 0 0 |
|0 S32 0 |

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