cell phone tower antenna basics | cell tower antenna types
This page covers cell phone tower antenna basics and cell tower antenna types. There are different types of antenna used in cell tower viz. omnidirectional and directional. The common Antenna mount types are also mentioned.
The figure-1 depicts cell tower with different antenna configurations used. The antenna arrays are formed with two main configurations viz. horizontal separation and vertical separation. Microwave circular horn antennas are used for terrestrial microwave link between the cell towers.
The antenna can function as transmit, receive or transmit/receive both. In order to use antenna as both transmitter and receiver, duplexer is used. There should be 10*λ distance between the two transmit or receive antennas.
For 900 MHz application, horizontal separation between two antennas is about 3.3 meters and vertical separation is about 5.7 meters.
We have seen classification based on arrangement of antennas used at cell tower. There are two major types of antenna used in cell tower based on functionality viz. omnidirectional and directional. This is shown in the figure-2 above.
This type of antenna is used to transmit/receive in any direction.
Example: dipole antennas
This type of antenna is used to transmit/receive in particular desired direction only. Examples include horn antennas of circular and rectangular type. Antennas are arranged in array to develop directional antenna. The two array types are parasitic arrays and driven arrays. The types of configurations in which they are arranged is explained above.
The figure-3 depicts various antenna mount types used during cell tower installation.
Cell Phone Tower Related Links
Antenna related links
Table of Antenna types and gain equations.
Manufacturers of RF antenna
Set Top Box manufacturers
Set Top Box basics
TV Antenna Booster
Satellite Dish Antenna