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Solar PV System | Solar Photovoltaic system basics

This page covers solar PV system basics. It mentions types of solar PV systems viz. stand-alone PV system and Grid Tied solar PV system.

PV stands for Photovoltaic system. It converts solar energy to electrical energy using photovoltaic effect. This converted energy is directly given to the load after necessary conversion. Moreover PV modules are arranged into arrays in order to increase the production of electrical energy. Solar PV systems are classified as follows.

Stand alone solar PV system

stand alone solar PV system

The figure-1 depicts stand alone Solar PV system. This system is isolated from electrical distribution grid and hence it is called standalone system. As shown it consists of PV array, charge controller, DC to AC inverter and battery bank.

DC to AC inverter provides AC supply to household or desired application. Additional generator is needed to enhance the reliability of the system. DC to DC inverter is used in order to serve DC loads. Sometimes PV array is directly connected with the DC load when alternate storage devices are available.

Grid Tied solar PV system

Grid Tied solar PV system

The figure-2 depicts Grid Tied Solar PV system. This system does not require any battery storage. It can be directly connected with electrical distribution network. It also uses DC to AC inverter.

Grid tied solar PV system has following advantages compare to stand-alone solar PV system type:
• It utilizes existing electrical infrastructure.
• It makes use of available energy efficiently. It contributes to needed electrical grid generation when demand is below the PV output.
• Smaller PV arrays meet the demand to supply same amount of load.
• It eliminates need for energy storage and costs associated with it.

Hybrid Solar PV systems utilize benefits of both of the above systems to provide flexibility and reliability. In this system battery storage or generator or both are combined with grid connection.

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