This tutorial section on IoT (Internet of Things) covers following sub topics:
Main tutorial IoT section IoT article Cellular IoT Components Sensors INDIAN companies Antenna Types Wireless technologies IoT transceiver SoC
As we know IoT market is booming and major component which will have huge market potential is sensor. There are two main divisions in IoT network digital back end and front end mainly consists of IoT sensors. The major benefit of these big market will be captured by semiconductor companies.
We will see IoT sensors which are used for optical, ambient light, temperature, pressure, Inertia, humidity, proximity, gesture, touch and fingerprint sensing applications. These sensors are based on MEMS technology. MEMS is the short form of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems.
If the sensors are digital it is straight forward to interface with microcontroller using SPI. If the sensors are analog, either Analog to Digital converter is needed as mentioned later from Analog devices. Otherwise Sigma Delta modulator can be used which converts analog data to the SPI output. It is easy to interface SPI signals with any microcontroller devices.
This type of sensor detects pressure around the earth which is bery much useful to develop altimeter as well as barometer. LPS25H pressure sensor from ST-Microelectronics is one such IoT sensing device. It is used for GPS based navigation.
accelerometer and gyroscope
Accelerometer is used to detect vibration,tilt and linear acceleration. It is used for implementation of pedometer,levelling,vibration alert,anti-theft and more. Gyroscope is used to measure angular velocity. Gyroscope is mainly used in 3D mouse,games and athlete training.
InvenSense Inc. has developed ICM-20628 which is low power 6 axis combined accelerometer and gyroscope solution.
It is used to control performance of the IoT device at varied temperatures. One example of temperature sensor is the ADT7320. It is digital temperature sensor with range from -40 degreeC to +150 degreeC. It is interfaced directly with microcontroller in a IoT device.
Similar to temperature sensor it is also used to control performance of the device. HTU21D from Measurement Specialties is digital humidity sensor. The NPA-700 series of humidity sensor from GE sensing provides digital output data using the industry-standard I2C protocol.
Si70xx series from Silicon Laboratories Inc. is also used as humidity and temperature sensors.
Silicon Labs' optical sensor family enables sensing UV Index, ambient light, long range proximity, heart rate/pulse oximetry and motion with 2D or 3D gestures. Model series Si114x, Si1132, Si1120 and Si1102 are sensors from Silicon Labs used as infrared proximity sensors.
Silicon Labs has 8bit and 32bit Microcontrollers which are used as capacitive touch sense applications. viz. sliders, wheels, touch buttons, liquid level sensing and capacitive proximity sensing.
Analog to Digital Converter
AD7176-2 from Analog Devices is used as analog to digital converter It works on very low bandwidth input signals originated from sensors. It has faster settling time. It is very accurate and has high resolution sigma-delta ADC.
IoT components page covering Op-Amp,Battery monitoring IC,sensors,supply regulator,RFIC,processor used for IoT device manufacturing, Read more.
The article describing about IoT, how does it work, IoT stack,Internet of Things applications and will discuss whether IoT is boon or curse for the mankind,Read more.
To know about cellular IoT basics and primary requirements of IoT device interfacing with cellular networks such as GSM,LTE,M2M etc., Read more.