This tutorial section on IoT (Internet of Things) covers following sub topics:
Main tutorial IoT section IoT article Cellular IoT Components Sensors INDIAN companies Antenna Types Wireless technologies IoT transceiver SoC
As we know that IoT will use existing internet infrastructure to connect the objects,things, devices other than the people. IoT applications are enormous and it will be used in medical,retail,military,consumer, agriculure,environmental,automotive and industrial need.
In the IoT network, all the devices are connected to the internet with separate IP address.IPv4 is not enough to address the demand of internet enabled devices in the IoT space. Hence IPV6 was developed to address the demand of huge number of IP addresses. Currently major challanges addressing the requirement of IoT devices are deployment of IPV6 across the world and requirement of prolonged battery life. The other requirement is increase in the receiver sensitity level of RF ICs and not but the least the cost. The cost of the IoT device should be less than about 5 to 6 dollar to capture the big IoT market.
As mentioned IoT network consists of front end and back end. Back end is entirely digital internet hardware and software. Front end consists of mainly sensors. Following are IoT components used in IoT device as well as for sensing applications.
IoT components include Sensors, power management devices,amplifiers,signal acquisition devices,microcontrollers,processors,battery monitoring ICs, low power RF ICs and more. sensors are used for temperature,motion,humidity,acceleration,tilt,pressure,shock,gas,pH,sound and infrared applications. Refer IoT sensors page for more information.
Companies such as Freescale,Microchip,Lattice semiconductor and Atmel are working towards providing ultra low power MCU for IoT applications. These companies are working on such process technologies so that the processors are tailored to meet IoT specifications.
Battery monitoring IC
The biggest benefit is to use battery monitoring devices so that it will turn off the device when voltage goes below the threshold limit set by the manufacturers/users. This helps conserve the power and hence life span of the IoT device. One such device is STC3115 designed by ST Microelectronics.
Another major natural resource available is ambient light. The companies are developing devices which store the energy from the indoor light and use this power to energize the sensors and other IoT components. One such device is ADP5090 designed by Analog Devices. This devices eliminates need of battery for power source. This ultra low power regolator is the source of energy harvesting solutions.
Other than above there are devices such as Op-Amp which operates at very low current of value 300nA. This helps it run for very long period of duration approx. about few months with a single battery and without any re-charging once installed. TI designed OPA2652 is one among them.
The major research is carried out in the areas where in IoT power has to be derived locally on IoT device using photo-cell or thermo electric voltage regulator.
The article describing about IoT, how does it work, IoT stack,Internet of Things applications and will discuss whether IoT is boon or curse for the mankind,Read more.
To know about cellular IoT basics and primary requirements of IoT device interfacing with cellular networks such as GSM,LTE,M2M etc.,Read more.