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What is Industry 4.0 | Manufacturing 4.0 basics

This page mentions Industry 4.0 evolution also known as manufacturing 4.0. It covers building blocks of industry 4.0 and mentions link to advantages and disadvantages of industry 4.0 cyber physical system.

Following figure-1 mentions revolutions in the manufacturing industry.
• Industry 1.0-It includes mechanical production such as railways and steam engine in the year from 1760 to 1840.
• Industry 2.0-It includes mass production such as electricity and assembly line in the year from 1870 to 1940.
• Industry 3.0-It includes manufacturing of electronic products such as computers, semiconductor devices, personal computing devices, internet etc. in the year from 1960 to 2010.
• Industry 4.0-Now is the year of cyber physical systems which creates "smart factory".


industry 4.0 evolution

As shown in the figure-1, as the evolution grows from industry 1.0 to industry 4.0 level of complexity increases with addition of more advanced features.

What is Industry 4.0:
The current trend in automation as well as data exchange in the manufacturing technologies is known as industry 4.0. It has become possible due to Cyber Physical System, IoT (Internet of Things) and cloud computing domains.


Industry 4.0-A Cyber Physical System

Figure-2 depicts Cyber Physical System (CPS). It is a system of collaborating computational elements which controls physical entities. Operations in CPS are monitored and controlled by computing and communication core parts. It allows to add capabilities to the physical systems by integration of computing/communication parts with physical processes.

As mentioned it creates vision of the smart factory. In this modular architecture, Cyber Physical Systems does following.
➨ monitor physical processes
➨ create virtual copy of these
➨ make de-centralized decisions
➨ Using IoT they communicate and co-operate with one another and humans in real time.
➨ Via IoS (Internet of Services), services are offered and utilized by participants of value chain.


industry 4.0 blocks

The figure-3 depicts building blocks of industry 4.0. These are as follows.
• Augmented Reality
• Additive Manufacturing of complex parts
• Cyber Security
• IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things)
• Horizontal and Vertical System Integration
• Production line simulation
• Robot assisted production
• Big Data Analytics

As explained six design principles have made it possible to create industry 4.0 based smart factories. These are interoperability, virtualization, de-centralization, real time capability, service orientation and modularity.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Industry 4.0

Refer advantages and disadvantages of industry 4.0>> which mentions benefits and drawbacks of industry 4.0 cyber physical system.

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