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AC motor vs DC motor-Difference between AC motor and DC motor

This page on AC motor vs DC motor describes basic difference between AC motor and DC motor types.

An electric motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is used for various applications such as fan, rotating a pump impeller, lifting materials, driving a compressor, etc. The motors are used at home and in the industry. The motor consumes about 70% of the total electrical load in the industry.

The general working mechanism is the same for all motors as outlined below: • An electric current in a magnetic field will experience a force.
• If the current carrying wire is bent into a loop, then the two sides of the loop, which are at right angle to the magnetic field, will experience forces in opposite directions.
• The pair of forces creates a turning torque to rotate the coil.
• Practical motors have several loops on an armature to provide a more uniform torque and the magnetic field is produced by electromagnet arrangement called the field coils. In understanding a motor it is important to understand what a motor load means. Load refers to the torque output and corresponding speed required.

Following table mentions comparison between these motor types with respect to various features.

AC Motor DC Motor
Alternating current (AC) motors use an electrical current, which reverses its direction at regular intervals. DC motors use direct-unidirectional current or DC current.
AC motors are classified into Synchronous and induction motors. Induction motors are classified into single phase and three phase motors. DC motors are classified into separately excited and self excited. Self excited DC motors are further classified into series, compound and shunt type.
AC motor has two basic parts viz. stator and rotor. The stator is stationary electrical component. The rotor is rotating electrical component, which in turn rotates the motor shaft. DC motor has three main components viz. field pole, Armature and Commutator.
Speed is more difficult to control for AC motors The main advantage of DC motors is speed control. It does not affect the quality of power supply. The speed can be controlled by armature voltage and field current.


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