Vehicle Sensor basics | Vehicle Sensor types
This article covers Vehicle Sensor basics and Vehicle Sensor types. In addition to Vehicle sensors, links to basics and types of other sensors are also mentioned. Functions of different types of vehicle sensors are also described.
What are Vehicle sensors?
As we know automobile industry is the fastest growing industries. Cars and other vehicles are made with advanced facilities to the users. They provide advanced driver assistance and make the vehicles as autonomous vehicles. Safety, identification, timely action, reliable notification and warning messages are very important in such vehicles.
There are various vehicle sensors based on advanced embedded MEMS technology. The sensors include image sensor, radar sensor, LiDAR sensor, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor, wheel speed sensor, oxygen sensor, knock sensor, acceleraion sensor, Yaw-Rate sensor, temperature sensor, pressure sensor etc.
Automotive manufacturers are continuously increasing use of electronic systems to improve vehicle performance, safety and passenger comfort. Sensors as well as actuators are integrated with automotive control to help in optimizing vehicle performance while improving reliability and durability of the vehicles.
Vehicle Sensor Types
There are various vehicle sensor types. These are selected based on
various criterias as outlined below.
• What parameter is to be measured?
• Magnitude and range of the quantity
• Resolution and accuracy of measurement required
• Interface requirements such as A/D parameters (number of bits, data rate), signal conditioning, sensitivity, analog/digital data format, output quantity (current, voltage, resistance) etc.
Following are the functions of various vehicle sensor types.
➨Temperature sensor: Used for temperature measurement on vehicles. They perform registration of temperature of coolants, fuel and air. Thermistors and thermocouples are temperature sensors.
➨Magnetic sensor: They are used for speed and position measurements of rotating members.
➨Pressure sensor: It is used for barometric pressure measurement in engine management.
➨Knock sensor: Used for registration of structure-borne vibrations (i.e. Knocking).
➨Acceleration sensor: Used for registration of accelerations in X, Y and Z axes.
➨Yaw rate sensor: Used for registration of rotational movement of vehicle around its vertical axis.
➨Air flow sensor: It is used to measure volume of air passing through the sensor.
➨Oxygen sensor: It provides closed loop feedback for engine management to control the air fuel ratio. It measures amount of oxygen which is directly proportional to mixture strength or air fuel ratio.
➨Image sensor: It can be used with cameras in order to provide information like speed, distance and outlines of obstacles and moving objects.
➨Radar sensor: It is used for detection and localisation of objects using radio frequency waves. Advanced driver assistance systems employ many such radar sensors.
➨LiDAR sensor: It is based on laser and used to measure distances of stationary and moving objects from moving car.
➨Wheel speed sensor: It is used to determine speed at which car is moving.
➨Ultrasonic sensor: It is used for parking and detection of objects which are very close to the vehicle.
➨GPS sensor: It provides information for accurate positioning and location of the car.
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