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Deep sea sensor basics | Deep sea Sensor types

This article covers Deep sea Sensor basics and Deep sea Sensor types including deep sea sensor applications. Types of ocean sensors or deep sea sensors include DO sensor, pressure sensor, pH sensor, sonar, imaging sensor etc.

What are Deep sea sensors or Ocean sensors?

Introduction:
In recent days there is a good progress made by human beings in deep sea R&D due to advancement in micro-electronics, sensors and automated/remote controlled computing systems such as ROV and AUV. ROV stands for Remotely Operated Vehicles where as AUV stands for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.

These include underwater robots and underwater drones which are equipped with intelligent sensors to measure temperature, pressure, amount of dissolved oxygen, pH level, ocean depth etc. Image sensors are used to capture images of underwater objects and sea-animals.


Types of Deep Sea Sensors

Deep sea sensor types and ocean instruments

A wide variety of sensors and ocean instruments are used in the ocean for various measurements which are as follows. They are used for various applications in civil, military, communications, seismic and energy. They are also used by ocean researchers and industries engaged in offshore explorations and ocean resource utilizations.
• Acoustic doppler current profiler
• Flow meter
• Pressure and tilt meter
• Conductivity-temperature-depth meter
• dissolved oxygen sensor
• digital still camera
• high definition video camera
• hydrophone
• mass spectrometer
• optical attenuation sensor
• pH and carbon dioxide sensor
• pressure sensor
• Remote access fluid and DNA sampler
• Resistivity probe
• seismometer
• SONAR
• Thermistor array and turbulent flow current meter

DO (Dissolved Oxygen) Sensor

• Dissolved oxygen (DO) meter is used to assess water quality.
• It is used to measure amount of dissolved oxygen in a liquid.
• DO sensor is used in oceans upto the depth of 6000 meters.
• It consists of pre-amplifier covered by titanium housing.
• It is used to interface CTD probe systems.

Pressure Sensor

• Seismic activity under water is monitored by placing pressure sensors on the sea floor at different locations.
• It is made of piezoelectric quartz crystals which produce electric charge when subjected to pressure. Hence it can measure pressure of the water above it.
• Pressure sensors are prone to drift and will lose accuracy over time.

pH Sensor

pH sensor

• The ion sensitive FET based pH sensor can be directly immersed in the seawater for ocean pH measurement.
• It is capable of measuring pH with good accuracy.
• Refer advantages of pH sensor for more information.

SONAR

Active SONAR vs Passive SONAR

• SONAR stands for sound navigation and ranging.
• Submarines depend on SONAR for underwater communication to a greater extent.
• Multi beam sonar is used for wide applications in the ocean.
• Refer difference between active sonar vs passive sonar >>
• Refer advantages and disadvantages of SONAR >>

Imaging Sensor

• Underwater photogrammetry is quite different in deep sea compare to land or space. Hence specially designed high resolution cameras are required which houses imaging sensors. Most of them work upto 6000 meters deep from the seafloor.
• Here common problems include rough conditions, high pressures, absence of natural light and refractions. Imaging sensors work under such conditions in deep sea.



Basics and Types of Sensors and Transducers

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Proximity Sensor
Occupancy Sensor vs Motion Sensor
LVDT and RVDT sensor
Position, displacement and level sensor
force sensor and strain sensor
temperature sensor
pressure sensor
Humidity sensor
MEMS sensor
Touch sensor
Haptic sensor
Wireless sensor

Advantages and Disadvantages of Sensor Types

Capacitive    Inductive    Photoelectric    Ultrasonic    Infrared    Motion    Biometric    Force    Humidity    Temperature    Light    Barometer    Sound    pH    Soil Moisture   

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